Australia began importing workers in 1848, and the United States began using them in 1865 on the First Transcontinental Railroad construction.These workers were deceived about their terms of employment to a much greater extent than their Indian counterparts, and consequently, there was a much higher level of Chinese emigration during this period.Much like slave plantations, there were preconceived notions of how different ethnicities worked. Just as many believed that Africans had an affinity for hard outdoor labor, Distant believed that Indian, Chinese, and Japanese Coolies were different in their ability to perform certain jobs. Those who ran estates believed that Chinese and Japanese Coolies were harder working, united, and clean.
Seventy-five percent of the Chinese coolies in Cuba died before fulfilling their contracts.
More than two-thirds of the Chinese coolies who arrived in Peru between 18 died within the contract period.
In 1847, two ships from Cuba transported workers to Havana to work in the sugar cane fields from the port of Xiamen, one of the five Chinese treaty ports opened to the British by the Treaty of Nanking in 1842.
The trade soon spread to other ports in Guangdong, and demand became particularly strong in Peru for workers in the silver mines and the guano collecting industry.
Social and political pressure led to the abolition of the slave trade throughout the British Empire in 1807, with other European nations following suit.